The bracha that one says before eating or drinking is known as a bracha rishona (literally,’first blessing’).
The Sages grouped all foods and drink into six different categories, and assigned each of these categories its own specific bracha rishona.
The text of all six brachot begins the same way:
Baruch Ata Ado-noy, Eloheinu Melech ha’olam – Blessed are you, God, our Master, King of the world.
This phrase is then followed by the subject of the bracha, i.e. what it is you are blessing God for.
The categories of foods and their assigned brachot are:
Hamotzee – Bread – Hamotzee lechem min Ha’aretz – Who brings forth bread from the land
Ha’gafen – Wine – Borei pri ha’gafen – Creator of the fruit of the vine
Mezonot – Grains – Borei minei mezonot – Creator of a variety of sustaining foods
Ha’aitz – Fruits – Borei pri Ha’aitz – Creator of the fruit of the tree
Ha’adama – Vegetables – Borei pri ha’adama – Creator of the fruit of the land
Shehakol – All other food & drink – Sheh’hakol niy’yeh bid’varo – That all came to be through His utterance